in what began as a thriving medieval market town on the Loire River, the Gien
factory was started in the 1820s by Thomas Antoine Edmé Hulme (a/k/a Hall) in
the former monastery of Minim. In the
years after the French revolution, when churches and monasteries were closed
and the monks driven away, it was common to use monasteries as sites for
factories. Gien was particularly
attractive because of its proximity to the rivers and canals that were the backbones
of 19th century commerce for transporting raw materials to the factory and
shipping finished products to customers.
original intent of the founders was to make English creamware (a soft-paste
white porcelain). The Treaty of Vergennes (1786) placed
confiscatory tariffs on French ceramics entering England but eliminated French
tariffs on English products exported to France. The result was a collapse in the French ceramics industry until
innovators such as Hall sought to make competing products in France and
capitalize on the French taste for English designs.
the balance of the 19th century the Gien factory enjoyed tremendous success as
an innovator in reproducing designs such as those popular in the Renaissance,
created in Italian towns such as Urbino,
Faenza, Gubbio and Deruta.
Gien designs incorporate typical Renaissance elements such as mythological
beings, putti, garlands, masques, fish and coats of arms on white,
black, brown and later blue backgrounds. While many styles were developed and the
factory won numerous awards at the various world exhibitions held in Europe,
the Renaissance pieces remained its most popular. Since its inception, Gien has been an innovator in techniques and
materials; even supplying the white, blue and black tiles used in the Paris
métro stations, many of which are still visible today and remain marvels for
their durability and ease of cleaning.
of the Renaissance faïence in the Collection include the rare fond blanc (white
in the form of vases, plates, jardinières, etc. These were among the first pieces made by Gien in the Renaissance
style and are among the most faithful reproductions of the original Italian
Urbinoware, much of which was already in collections in Lyon, La Rochelle and
Paris as inspiration for the designers at Gien. When the factory perfected the technique for making the rich,
cobalt blue background (fond bleu) for the Renaissance designs, its output
became more popular than ever and grew to include dinnerware, tea sets, serving
pieces and numerous decorative items.
In limited quantities, many of these items are still in production and
can be seen on tours of the factory and its onsite museum. For
information on visiting the factory, visit the
English language version of the Gien factory
website on Gien.com